Acid and Base

Edited by Jen Moreau

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ACID AND BASE

Svante Arrhenius in the 1800s gave a basic definition to acids and bases while he was working on kinetics problems.

He said, acids are compounds that break up in H2O (H2O) an equation example is given below:

(H+) ion. HCl <=> H+ + Cl

Often, acids formula usually start with hydrogen, with an exception to Organic Acids. Below are examples of both Acid name and the base name and their corresponding formula:

Acid-base.PNG

When an Arrhenius acid, is introduced to H2O, the chemical must either cause, directly or otherwise:

  • Increase in the aqueous hydronium concentration.

or

  • A decrease in the aqueous hydroxide concentration.

Acid-base-2.PNG

But when an Arrhenius base, is introduced to H2O, the chemical must either cause, directly or otherwise:

  • An increase in the aqueous hydroxide concentration.

or

  • A decrease in the aqueous hydronium concentration.

NEUTRALIZATION

This is the reaction of both Acid and Base, in which the result of the reaction is Salt and H2O.

Below is an example of reaction:

HCl(aq) + NaOH(aq)+ ' NaCl(aq) + H2O

Lowry- " Brønsted Acid based upon the idea of protonation of bases through the de-protonation of acids- " i.e, the ability of acids to donate hydrogen ions (H+) also known as protons to bases, which accept them.

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Brønsted-Lowry acid is also defined as a compound that gives hydronium ions to another compound. E.g. gives H+ ions (hydrochloric) to compounds it reacts with.

Brønsted-Lowry bases are compounds or chemicals that accept hydronium ions when ammonia gets a hydronium ion from HCl.

The equation below is an example of the reaction of both:

Acid-base-3.PNG

general formula Brønsted- "Lowry acid-base reaction is below:

HA + B ->' BH+ + A+ '

PROPERTIES OF ACID

Below are the properties of acid

  • NEUTRALIZATION REACTION.

When acid and base is combined it result to salt and H2O. An ionic compound that could be made with the anion of an acid and cation of a base is called SALT. While H2O is formed by the union between the hydrogen ion of the acid and the hydroxide ion of the base.

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  • ACID TURN BLUE LITMUS PAPER TO RED.

A Litmus paper is a large number of organic compounds that change colors when a solution changes acidity at a particular point.it is a pH indicator.

  • ACID CORRODE METAL.

Gold can be attacked by an acid. Whenever an acid reacts with a metal, it will produce a compound with the cation of the metal.

  • ACID TASTE SOUR.

Stomach acid is hydrochloric acid. Although tasting stomach acid is not pleasant, it has the sour taste of acid. Sour milk, sour cream, yogurt, kimchi, and cottage cheese have lactic acid from the fermentation of the sugar lactose. Acetic acid is the acid ingredient in vinegar.

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PROPERTIES OF BASE

  • BASES TURN RED LITMUS TO BLUE.

This is not to conclude that the only acid-base indicator is litmus, but that it is likely the oldest one.

  • BASES RELEASE HYDROXIDE ION WHEN REACT WITH H2O.

In the Lowry - Brønsted model, cause a hydroxide ion to be released into H2O solution by accepting a hydrogen ion.

  • BASES DENATURE PROTEIN.

The Strong base that dissolves in H2O well, such as sodium are very dangerous because a great amount of the structural material of human beings is made of protein. This can be noticed from the slippery feeling on hands when exposed to the base.

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  • BASES TASTE VERY BITTER.

Bases food tastes very bitter. There are very few food materials that are alkaline. Proper care should be taken when testing bases. Tasting of bases is more dangerous than tasting acids.

STRONG ACIDS AND STRONG BASES

Strong acid and bases are completely ionized when dissolving in H2O. Below are names and formula of common strong acids and base.

STRONG ACIDS

acid.PNG

STRONG BASE

base.PNG

WEAK ACID AND WEAK BASE

WEAK ACID

Weak acids and bases are only partially ionized in their solutions below are names and formula of weak acids and base.

WEAK ACID

weak acid.PNG

WEAK BASES

weak base.PNG

PH SCALE OVERVIEW

A ph scale is used to measure how acidic or basic a substance is.A ph value is a number ranging from one to fourteen (1-14), with seven (7) as the neutral number.

ph scale.PNG

Referencing this Article

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Acid and Base. (2017). In ScienceAid. Retrieved Mar 25, 2017, from https://scienceaid.net/Acid_and_Base

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Chicago / Turabian ScienceAid.net. "Acid and Base." Accessed Mar 25, 2017. https://scienceaid.net/Acid_and_Base.

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