Edited by Chameleon, SarMal, Sharingknowledge, Jen Moreau
A building is a closed space built for the purpose of shelter and dwelling and can be made of steel, concrete, wood, masonry or clay mud. Buildings serve residential, commercial and industrial purposes. In order to properly serve as a shelter, buildings are designed to be robust enough to resist wind forces, earthquakes, snow and rain, floods and other natural calamities. Each material used to construct buildings is designed to support the building as a whole and provide shelter and other benefits to its occupants.
A slab is a technical term used for the floor. The number of slabs required is dependent on the number of stories in a building. Slabs are designed to be as thin as possible and cover maximum surface area. Slabs are usually made of concrete, concrete filled metal deck, wood, galvanized iron sheets or panels and often finished with tiles or screed for both protection and aesthetic value. A slab transferring weight in one direction is called a one way slab, while a slab transferring weight in two directions is called a two-way slab.
A beam carries the weight transfer from the slab. Beams support and frame the slabs so that the slabs won't deflect. Most beams do not resist axial forces. Wooden beams are often referred as posts. The size of the beam depends on gravity and lateral loadings. Concrete beams are usually of the rectangular cross section while the most effective steel beam section is wide flange beam. Connections and detailing of beams decide its continuity.
The technical name for a pillar is a column. Columns are used to carry all the weight of a structure and transmit it to the foundation. Columns are slender and designed to resist axial forces. Columns are designed to have more stiffness than beam and resist all gravity and lateral weight. A typical cross section of a concrete column is square, rectangle and circular. A wide flange section and hollow steel section are standard steel column sections. Steel columns are also encased in concrete to give additional strength and aesthetics. Architectural columns may also be used in buildings for purely aesthetic reasons. Columns are most prone the earthquake and wind loadings.
There are two types of structural walls: Shear walls and retaining walls.
- 1Shear walls are intentionally designed to handle earthquake and wind loadings. They are the vertical elements with large surface areas that attract all lateral forces. Shear walls are located symmetrically around the building parameters to avoid torsion and twisting of the building. In some buildings, shear walls work alone to resist an earthquake, while in other buildings, columns also contribute.Shear Walls.Advertisement
- 2Retaining walls are designed to resist lateral loadings of soil and water. The triangular pressure loading acts along the height of the wall. The magnitude of pressure increases with depth. Retaining wall are a workout to resist overturning and uplifting. These are used to resist slope of embankments, pavements, basements and other underground structures.Retaining Walls.
All the structural loads of the buildings are transmitted to the soil strata by mean of structural foundation. Concrete is the most widely used material used for the construction of foundation of all types of buildings. The size and type of foundation depend on loading and soil characteristics. The following are the types of foundation typically used in construction:
- 1Isolated footing is shallow footing designed for single column loading.Isolated/ Spread Footing.
- 2Combine footing is designed for two column loads.Combined Footing.
- 3A footing connecting series of columns in a row is called strip footing.Strip Footing.
- 4Wall loads are transferred to soil by mean of wall footing.Wall Footing.
- 5The foundation of columns at edge to the adjacent buildings is workout as eccentric footing.Eccentric Footing.
- 6In order to avoid overturning of eccentric footing, a beam is tied. This beam is called strap beam and foundation is referred as strap footing.Strap Footing.
- 7Raft or matt footing are foundations designed for various columns.Raft/ Mat Footing.
- 8Pile foundation is designed for high-rises with massive loading. Concrete piles are drilled or driven into the bore hole. Pile caps are provided to connect the group of pile.Pile Foundation.
- 9Pedestals are designed for poles or gate columns.Pedestal.
The foundation of a building sitting on soil of good bearing capacity is smaller in size. The settlement of soil is critical for the foundation of a large area such as raft. Friction, cohesiveness, and expansion are other important parameter affecting foundation size and design.
Partition walls are not structural elements of the building. They just provide separation and closing. Partition wall can be made of block masonry, hollow block, timber, glass or brick. In a high-rise building, these partition walls are more prone to the lateral forces and could damage severely in case of such catastrophe. In such case, reinforcement bars are embedded into the hollow blocks to improve their performance. Structural framing is done such that there is a beam underneath the partition wall, but it is not necessary. The areas where partition walls are directly resting on slabs are designed for that much loading and strength. The smaller height walls around the periphery of roof and balconies serve for privacy are called parapet walls. They also lie in the category of non-structural walls.
It is necessary to leave compulsory open space around the building including doors, windows, and other types of ventilators. These openings provide lighting, aeration, ventilation and aesthetic.
There are electrical, mechanical and plumbing fixtures in most buildings. Electrical ducts are concealed, and wires are drawn through them before finishing. Similarly, plumbing lines are embedded through floorings, along with drinking and drainage supply facilities.
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Categories : Industrial
Recent edits by: Sharingknowledge, SarMal, Chameleon