The study of the relationships between living organisms and their environment.

Studying Ecosystems


Investigating ecosystems is difficult because of the huge number of biotic and abiotic factors. An area is studied by quadrat or transect sampling. Statistics like standard deviation and Chi Squared are used to analyse. See Studying Ecosystems



Competion ariese as a result of limited resources in an environment, and relates to natural selection. Predator and prey numbers vary according to the predator prey cycle, where they rise and fall ... find out why! See Predation

Nutrient Cycles


Nutrient cycles look at how important molecules in an ecosystem are transferred, the most important two cycles are carbon and nitrogen as these are essential organic molecules. Fixation, dentrification etc ...See Nutrient Cycles

Human Influence on Ecosystems


Humans have polluted ecosystems by changes in farming practice (monoculture, hedgerow removal); fertilisers causing eutrophication and biomagnification of pesticides. But there are new techniques minimising these. See Human Influence

Food Chains and Energy


A food chain shows how energy is transfered through an ecosystem by eating. At each trophic level, energy is lost which is why a pyramid of numbers tends to show there are more consumers than producers. See Food Chains and Energy



The theory of variation and natural selection, famously proposed by Darwin. Evidence is found in melanism of the peppered moth; and the darker coloured moths numbers reduced during the industrial revolution. See Evolution



What is an ecosystem? A population is kept stable by abiotic factors, predation and competition (red squirrels example). Succession is the process of a habitat being stabilised, this can be seen in sand dunes. See Ecosystems

Classification of Species


Taxonomy is putting organisms into catagories; by kingdom, phylum, class, order, family, genus and species. There are five kingdoms. Speciation the creation of new species, this results from isolation. See Classification



All living things must adapt in order to survive in their environment, the species that is better adapted will be able to live longer in this environment and pass on their genotype as much as possible through evolution. See Adaptation

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