Non-organic chemistry, covering metals, halogens etc.

Transition Metals


Transition metals make up a huge block on the periodic table. They include iron, aluminium and vandium. Common characteristics include variable oxidation states and having an incomplete d shell. See Transition Metals

Periodic Table


The periodic table is synonymous with chemistry, and you will see it in any chemistry classroom. Elements are in order of their number of protons, it gives information about the atomic mass and the groups of element. See Periodic Table

Substitution Reactions


Substitution reactions occur in metal-aqua ions where the ligand is substituted. We examine neutral, charged and bidentate and multidentate ligand substitutions and the reasons for the patterns of reaction seen. See Substitution Reactions

Period 3


The trends in period 3 elements: their reaction with water (only sodium, magnesium and chlorine), oxygen and chlorine; the acid bases properties of their oxides; and the reactions of their chlorides with water. See Period 3

Noble Gases


The noble gases include helium and neon, these elements are unreactive having a 'full' outer electron field; this property means they are used in light bulbs and to prevent explosion. Their densities can be compared in balloons. See Noble Gases

Lewis Acids and Bases


Lewis acids and bases are defined by their behaviour with electrons rather than hydrogen. The metal-aqua ion has a greater acidity with smaller higher charged ions like aluminium 3+; they form precipitates with hydroxide. See Lewis Acids and Bases

Group VII: Halogens


The halogens include fluorine (the most electronegative element) and chlorine. You can test for halides using silver nitrates. Chlorine and chlorides are reacted to make a substance that is used commercially in bleach. See Group VII: Halogens

Metal Extraction


Metal can be extracted by various means, the blast furnace reduces iron oxide to iron, electrolysis removes a metal (like Aluminum) using electricity, or in the case of titanium an alternative compound is used. See Metal Extraction

Complex Ions


A complex compound contains a central metal ion that is surrounded by ligands - these are ions or molecules that donate a pair of electrons to the metal. We look at their shapes, colours and applications. See Complex Ions



Catalyts improve yields. There are homogenous and heterogenous catalysts. They are very important in industry, for instance iron in the Haber process or vandium oxide. Also catalytic converters in cars. See Catalysts

Alkali Metals


The alkali metals include sodium, potassium and lithium. They all are soft metals, have low melting points and have an often vigourous reaction with water where hydrogen gas is produced, causing a flame. See Alkali Metals

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