Microbiology is the study of micro-organisms such as bacteria and fungi, and how they can be used.

Vaccination and Immunity


Following an immune response, memory cells are produced which cause the secondary response. Vaccines contain an antigen and induce an immune response. Passive immunity is giving antibodies to someone. Vaccination and Immunity

Viral Infection


Viruses are very small and have features including RNA and capsids. In the life cycle of a virus, it enters a cell, replicates and bursts out. Flu and HIV are examples of viruses that can be prevented by vaccination. See Viral Infection

Staying Clean


Malaria is a disease endemic to certain areas and is transmitted by the anopheles mosquito, flu can be epidemic. Disease can be prevented by taking precautions such as using disinfectant and sterilistation. See Staying Clean

Sewage Treatment


Sewage is domestic and industrial waste, and water drained from rainfall. Although sewage is mostly harmless (it is 90% water) it contains pathogens that can cause abdominal cramps, diarrhoea, and even paralysis. See Sewage Treatment

Immune Response


To protect us from pathogens, the immune system destroys invaders. Macrophages perform phagocytosis, and lymphocytes destroy pathogens with cytotoxin. Antibodies form complexes with pathogens to disable them. See Immune Response

Fungi and Yeast


Fungi are a microorganism, their structures include hyphae, mycellia septa and nuclei. Yeast is a type of fungus used in brewing and baking. Pathogenic fungi cause athletes foot, thrush and pneumonia. See Fungi and Yeast



Fermentation is any process where microorganisms use an external food source for energy. This process is done in a fermenter, conditions are controlled by mixing, water jacket. Yogurt is made by fermentation of milk. See Fermentation



Microorganisms are used for industrial processes as diverse as manufacturing yogurt and penicillin. For many processes, it is necessary to isolate enzymes and immobilze them, by entrapment, binding or bonding. See Biotechnology

Bacteria and Disease


Pathogenic bacteria can contaminate food, infect the colon and cause diarrhoea (salmonella or E. coli), but this can be prevented by hygiene, water treatment or pasteurisation as is used for milk. See Bacteria and Disease



Bacteria were one of the earliest forms of life, they are prokaryotic, and can survive in extremes of environment. They reproduce by binary fission and their life cycle follows a predictable pattern of growth, stability then death. See Bacteria



Antibiotics are defined as chemicals produced naturally by microorganisms that prevent the growth of other microorganisms, however, some antibiotics are now made without the need of microorganisms. See Antibiotics

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