Nature and Psychology of Intelligence

Edited by Shelleymarie, Jen Moreau

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Intelligence

Nature and Theories of Intelligence

Intelligence is defined in many different ways. It is one's capacity for knowledge, logic, problem-solving, understanding and creativity. It's also the ability to choose between two things and the ability to resolve different conflicts. The word "intelligence" is derived from the Latin word "intelligere," which means to comprehend or perceive. Intelligence isn't only observed in humans, but also in plants and animals. There are three main theories of intelligence in the field of psychology.

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Spearman's Theory of Intelligence

Spearman's theory is known as the two-factor theory of intelligence.

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    General factors, also known as the G factor or general intelligence, are common in all individuals
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    They are a person's general cognitive ability, or the ability to make decisions and differentiate between two different things, etc.
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  2. 2
    Specific factors are special characteristics or special talents that an individual has
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    Spearman's theory is that people have an underlying general intelligence factor which influences or affects all of their abilities and behavior.
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The characteristics of general factors are a universal inborn ability or general mental energy. General factors are constant and used in every life activity. They differ from individual to individual, and according to the theory, the greater the general factor, the greater success in life. Specific factors are learned and acquired in the environment. These factors vary from activity to activity in the same individual, and they differ in the amount of specific ability.

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Thurston's Group Factor Theory

Thurston's theory is that intelligence is a cluster of nine separate abilities, rather than a single ability. Thurston defined the following nine factors.

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    Verbal comprehension is the ability to understand verbal information
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  2. 2
    Word fluency is the ability to conceptualize words rapidly,
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  3. 3
    Numerical factor is the ability to do calculations
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  4. 4
    Spatial visualization is the ability to conceptualize shapes
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  5. 5
    Memory factor is the ability to memorize information
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  6. 6
    Perceptual factor is the ability to imagine objects
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  7. 7
    Inductive reasoning or bottom-up logic is the ability to process specific information and come to a general conclusion
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  8. 8
    Deductive reasoning or top-down logic is the ability to come to a specific conclusion based on general sources of information
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  9. 9
    Problem solving ability factor is the ability to solve problems.
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Structure of Intellect by Guilford

Guilford's theory is that a person's intelligence is based on their mental abilities. He believed that there are 180 different mental abilities organized among the following dimensions: Operations (the act of thinking), contents (the terms we think), and products (the ideas we come up with). These dimensions are structured in a three-dimensional framework.

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This article is part of a series on 'Introduction to Psychology'. Read the other articles here:

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1) Introduction to Psychology

2) Nervous System

3) Stages and Types of Learning

4) The Psycological Theory of Emotions

5) Intelligence

6) Motivation

7) Personality

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Nature and Psychology of Intelligence. (2017). In ScienceAid. Retrieved Oct 23, 2017, from https://scienceaid.net/Intelligence

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Article Info

Categories : Cognition

Recent edits by: Shelleymarie

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