Homeostasis: Negative Feedback, Body Temperature, Blood Glucose

Edited by Jamie (ScienceAid Editor), Rj, SmartyPants, Jen Moreau

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Homeostasis and Hormones

Homeostasis is the maintenance of a constant internal environment in response to a changing external environment. Hormones have an important role in this system. Hormones are made of proteins, they are released by glands into the bloodstream, where they reach target cells. A specific hormone will fit a specific receptor protein, and this brings about a change in that cell.

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Negative Feedback

Negative feedback is the mechanism by which the body maintains conditions within particular limits. The body will do this by opposing a change that deviates from the normal. The diagram below helps to explain this using the example of body temperature.

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negative feedback

Note that the opposite change takes the level too far below the normal, therefore a negative response backup will occur, and the process repeats itself, so that over time the temperature oscillates about the normal, within small limits.

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Body Temperature

It is important to maintain a constant temperature so that living organisms can maintain metabolism. There are two types of heat regulation: endothermic where the species controls their own temperature (mammals, birds), and ectothermic where temperature reflects the environmental temperature (lizards, fish).

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The temperature in mammals is detected by thermoreceptors in the skin and the hypothalamus which is in the brain. Changes in temperature bring about nerve impulses from the brain to the muscles and glands which will bring about changes depending on whether it is hot or cold.

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thermoregulation

Blood Glucose

The amount of glucose in your blood is carefully controlled. Again, this uses the hormonal system. The hormones responsible for regulating blood glucose are produced in the pancreas in particular areas called islets of Langerhans.

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the islets of langerhans

After you have eaten a meal, the blood glucose levels will begin to rise because the carbohydrates in the food are digested and absorbed. This rise is detected by beta cells, which then will produce more insulin. This insulin then binds to receptor proteins in cell membranes (particularly in the liver). This causes more protein channels to open so that more glucose can enter the cell. As well as this, insulin encourages enzymes to convert glucose to glycogen (glycogenesis) for storage.

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If however, you have been doing a lot of exercise, and glucose is being used up, then alpha cells will produce glucagon, this causes the release of an enzyme that breaks glycogen to glucose (glycogenolysis [gli-ko-jen-oh-li-sis]).

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Questions and Answers

Does sweating involve both the endocrine system and the nervous system?

Silly question, but is sweating an example of where both the nervous system and endocrine system work together? Electrical signals are sent to sweat glands, but as they're glands, surely that also makes it endocrine as well due to the secreting? (or exo as nothing is being secreted into the blood). In the hot/cold table, it is not clear which involves the endocrine system, and which involves the nervous system

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How does homeostatic help control my body temperature?

Using the terms receptors, control center, and effector, explain the homeostatic mechanisms involved in controlling body temperature. Need it for revision on the upcoming exam, don't fully understand it yet. I have tried: Reading other articles, visiting various sites, going over uni lectures. I think it was caused by: I don't understand the explanation, too much information, the way in which my lecturer explains it to me.

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Describe generally how a NEGATIVE feedback loop works it comes to temperature regulation of the body?

Describe generally how a NEGATIVE feedback loop works it comes to temperature regulation of the body. Nerves and Hormones. . . HW PROBLEM. The question is not directly covered

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Categories : Humans

Recent edits by: SmartyPants, Rj, Jamie (ScienceAid Editor)

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