# Representing Data using tables graphs and averages

Edited by Jamie (ScienceAid Editor), Taylor (ScienceAid Editor), SmartyPants

## Tables

For Psychologists, tables are a very important tool. The **title** should be informative with the units stated clearly. The **column titles** should allow you to know exactly what the results show. Below is a table with the results from an experiment where students who had eaten breakfast, and students did not eat breakfast, did a maths test.

## Graphs

Graphs are a good way of visually representing your findings in a study. The first one is a **histogram**. They are different to the bar charts because their scale is continuous (1,2,3,4,5 rather than red, blue and green), so the bars are put next to each other. In a 'proper' histogram, there is frequency density, but for the purposes of Psychology, we will only look at **frequency** which means the 'number of'.

Another type of graph that you may encounter is a **scatter graph**. This is done by plotting one thing against another, and will show a **correlation**. As well as a visual representation, there are a number of methods that we can use to calculate correlation numerically. A correlation of +1 would be perfect positive correlation and a correlation of -1 is perfect negative. Having a correlation of 0, would determine there is no relationship at all. The diagram below outlines this.

## Averages and Distribution

Another term for average is measures of central tendency. So an average gives an indication as to the most typical result; there are three main types"

- 1- the one that appears the most.Mode - the most frequent piece of data - i.e.Advertisement
- 2Median.
- 3Mean.

The **distribution** of some data can also be called its **spread**. The easiest method is called the **range** and you simply subtract the smallest value from the largest. However, this is not entirely accurate. This is why statisticians have devised a measure called **standard deviation**. Put simply this measure tells you how much the data **deviates** (is smaller or larger than) the mean; on average. It is relative to the size of the mean.

## Referencing this Article

If you need to reference this article in your work, you can copy-paste the following depending on your required format:

__APA (American Psychological Association)__

Representing Data using tables graphs and averages. (2017). In *ScienceAid*. Retrieved May 16, 2022, from https://scienceaid.net/psychology/approaches/representing.html

** MLA (Modern Language Association)**
"Representing Data using tables graphs and averages."

*ScienceAid*, scienceaid.net/psychology/approaches/representing.html Accessed 16 May 2022.

** Chicago / Turabian**
ScienceAid.net. "Representing Data using tables graphs and averages." Accessed May 16, 2022. https://scienceaid.net/psychology/approaches/representing.html.

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## Comments

## Article Info

Categories : Approaches

Recent edits by: Taylor (ScienceAid Editor), Jamie (ScienceAid Editor)