Genetics studies inheritance of characteristics and the role of DNA.

Variation and Meiosis


There are two types of variation between people: continuous and discontinuous, this variation can be caused by meiosis, the process of cell division in gametes. Steps include crossing over and bivalent formation. See Variation and Meiosis

Sexual Reproduction


The gametes are the sperm in males (structures: tail, acrosome, mitochondria) and ovum (structures: polar body, jelly coat, yolk droplets) in females. Meiosis and life cycles are also important in reproduction. See Sexual Reproduction

Protein Synthesis


The process of making proteins from 'instructions' in DNA and RNA. Transcription creates RNA in the nucleus and translation is the building of polypeptides using the ribosome and tRNA. Mutations can occur. See Protein Synthesis



This is the process of growing small plants from pieces of tissue from a plant (explant); in the laboratory in vitro. It uses sterile lab techniques and produces a plantlet that can be used in agriculture. See Micropropagation



Inheriting characteristics from alleles. How is sex determined? Monohybrid and dihybrid inheritance, using the example of blood groups. Genes can be sex linked (haemophillia) or interact with each other: epistasis. See Inheritance

Gene Therapy - Cystic Fibrosis


Cystic fibrosis is an inherited diseaseresulting from an irregular gene causing mucus to be too thick. A potential cure for this is to gene therapy: giving the patient the correct gene by virus or liposome. See Gene Therapy

Genetic Engineering


Enzymes such as ligase and restriction endonuclease are used to manipulate genetic sequences - producing sticky ends. Pieces of genetic material can be inserted to plasmids and bacteria produce proteins, like insulin say. See Genetic Engineering



DNA is a molecule that carries the genetic code, made up of nucleotides forming deoxyribonucleic acid and forming a double helix. Complimentary base pairing is important in DNA replication and the polymerase chain reaction. See DNA



This makes genetically identical offspring. It is done by the process of somatic cell nuclear transfer. This technique is used in stem cell research or perhaps theraputic cloning, but also reproductive. There are ethical problems with this. See Cloning

Artificial Insemination


Artificial insemination is the use of collected semen from bulls to inseminate and impregnate cows; without the two meeting. It is used to produce cattle with desirable characteristics like selective breeding. See Artificial Insemination

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