Biochemistry looks at molecules and chemical processes in living organisms.



The energy molecule ATP is generated by a series of reactions in the cytoplasm and mitochondria. Glycolysis, Krebs Cycle and the electron transfer chain are all reactions involved in respiration. See Respiration



Proteins are long molecules made up of amino acids which has an amine, R and carboxylic acid group. Amino acids are joined by a condensation reaction: polymerisation. They have primary, secondary and tertiary structure and folding. See Proteins



This reaction occurs in the chloroplasts of plants, it consists of the light dependent reaction which generates electrons from chlorophyll, and the light independent reaction, also known as the Calvin Cycle, where glucose is made. See Photosynthesis



Lipids are fats and oils, they are important in Biology because they make membranes. An example of a lipid is triglyceride, made of glycerol and fatty acids. Phospholipids have a phosphate group. See Lipids



Enzymes are biological catalysts that lower the activation energy. The induced fit hypothesis explains how they work. Temperature, and inhibitors (competive and non-competitive) affect their activity. See Enzymes



Carbohydrates can be monosaccharide, disaccharide or polysaccharide. They are also known as sugars and have many uses in the body including respiration, building cell walls and as cell receptors. See Carbohydrates

Biochemical Tests


It is important to be able to identify various molecules from reducing sugars to proteins using various techniques. You can also use chromatography and use Rf values to identify any compounds. See Biochemical Tests

ATP and Exercise

ATP and Exercise

ATP is the energy molecule, it has three phosphates, the conversion from three to two produces or uses energy. Aerobic and anaerobic respiration can lead to muscle fatigue because of lactate build up. See ATP and Exercise

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